The food we give to the horse must meet seven basic requirements. Five of them are:
It needs to provide enough energy (calories) to meet the requirements of the horse. If the weather gets cold or horses that are used more actively, the amount of food needs to be increased accordingly. Likewise, when winter turns to summer, or if the horse is less active, the amount of food should be reduced. This is the reason you should give the horse supplements to your horse.
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Minerals and Vitamins
In addition to energy, feed the horses need to provide a range of essential minerals and vitamins, in the amount needed.
Bulk and High Fiber
The digestive system of a horse has evolved to process grass, which is high in fiber and bulk. Food was concentrated (eg grains) can provide the necessary energy and minerals, but does not have a mass requiring the digestive system, which greatly increases the risk of ulcers and other diseases.
The food is difficult to digest food limited value and can cause serious illness (eg impaction colic). This is a particular problem for older horses, where wear gear reduces their ability to chew food and aging have reduced the ability to digest certain foods.
Grass and Hay
The grass is the most natural food for horses, because what they have evolved to eat. In general, horses will tend to be healthier on a diet consisting mostly of grasses than other foods.
Hay is the most natural food second, somewhat close to the hay that they might find after the summer and dry or dry winter grass.